The Oyo Mesi developed as a check on the Alaafin's power, preventing the Alaafin from being an autocrat; they compelled many Alaafins to commit suicide during the 17th and 18th centuries.[32]. The town of Ogbomoso lies between Ilorin and Oyo Town in the south western region of Nigeria. All Alaafins, due to the Yoruba belief that Ife was the spiritual home of the Yorubas, were previously made to swear an oath never to attack Ife. [22] This territory extended from the non-Yoruba areas west of the Egbado Corridor far into Ewe controlled territory in modern Togo. [46] Afonja carried out Awole's order and sacked Apomu, but on the return of the army from the campaign he marched on the capital Oyo-Ile (which was itself a taboo), and demanded that Awole abdicate. Oyo state is one of the south-western states in Nigeria with its capital at Ibadan which is probably the largest city in the country by land mass. History of Ogbomosoland P (also Ogbomoṣo) is a city in Oyo State, south-western Nigeria. [14], Ajaland was the last layer added to the empire. This area was inhabited by the Egba and Egbado, and guaranteed Oyo's trade with the coast. [30], All sub-courts of Oyo had Ilari who acted as both spies and taxmen. [23], The empire's third layer was the Egbado Corridor southwest of Yorubaland. It rose through the outstanding organizational and administrative skills of the Yoruba people, wealth gained from trade and its powerful cavalry. The town was founded in the mid-17th century by Ogunlola, a brave hunter of Ibariba descent. The Oyo state of the yorubas was the earliest and the largest of the four great kingdoms of west Africa. There are also tertiary institutions located in the state that forms part of its economy, such as: University of Ibadan (Ibadan), Ladoke Akintola university of Technology (Ogbomoso), Lead University (Ibadan), Atiba University (Oyo), Ajayi Crowther University (Oyo) and other various institutions cut across the state. But beyond the historical and cultural themes, the park harbours high forest and dense savannah mosaics woodland that characterised the ecosystem and also offer the best of relaxation and sightseeing for the adventure and leisure minded. The Bashorun had final say on the nomination of the new Alaafin, his power rivaling that of the king himself. Oyo state was one of the three states carved out of the old western state of Nigeria on the 3 rd of February 1976 during states creation exercise which originally included Osun state but was later divided in 1991. [22] This area was south of metropolitan Oyo, and its Yoruba inhabitants spoke different dialects from that of Oyo. [33], By 1680, the Oyo Empire spanned over 150,000 square kilometers. A prince with innocence, an heir to the throne he is. [38] The Yoruba and their neighbours used triple barbed javelins which could be thrown accurately from about 30 paces.[13]. "Extract of letter of W. Devaynes, Governor of the English fort at Whydah, 22 The population was approximately 245,000 in 2006 census. While the Alaafin of Oyo was supreme overlord of the people, he was not without checks on his power. The Sabiganna of Iganna origin is traceable to Adebiyi, one of the grandsons of Oduduwa known as Onisabe. The Oyo State Government has set aside the sum of #732million in the year 2021 budget to cater for community development capital and recurrent expenditure projects under the State’s Community and Social Development Project (CSDP). Many believe the decline of the Oyo empire had started as early as 1754 with the dynastic intrigues and palace coups sponsored by the Oyo Prime Minister Gaha. Yams, cassava, cashew, mango, maize, and tobacco are some of the notable agricultural… But then, something happened! The university, whose conception began in 1987 during the administration of Adetunji Olurin, the then Military Governor of Oyo State, came with the first challenge as Osun State … "Royal Gold Coast Gazette and Commercial Intelligencer" Cape coast, 1822-3, Learn how and when to remove this template message, List of rulers of the Yoruba state of Oyo, "http://www.laits.utexas.edu/africa/2004/database/fasanya.html". Ajaka was restored after Sango's death. According to Yoruba history, he founded Oyo as its first Alaafin at around the year 1300 and one of his children, Eweka I, went on to become the first Oba of the Benin Empire. Ọyọ State is homogenous, mainly inhabited by the Yoruba ethnic group who are primarily agrarian but have a predilection for living in high density urban centers. [7] Sometime around 1535, the Nupe occupied Oyo and forced its ruling dynasty to take refuge in the kingdom of Borgu. New York: Macmillan Limited, 1995. Oba Atiba sought to preserve what remained of Oyo by placing on Ibadan the duty of protecting the capital from the Ilorin in the north and northeast. The Oyo army was able to attack defensive fortifications, but it was harder to supply an army, and they withdrew when supplies ran out. Set in the northern part of Oyo State, in the South-West of Nigeria, the park derived its name from the ruins of Oyo-Ile, the ancient political kingdom of the Oyo Empire. The people created a government that established its power over a vast empire. Arulogun/ Eniose/Aroro, OjoEmo/Moniya, Iroko, Iwokoto/ Talontan/Idi Oro, Ojoo/Ajibode/Laniba, Ikereku, Olanla /Oboda /Labode, Ijaye/Ojedeji, Olode/Amosun/Onidundu, Ward 7 NW4, Ward 8 NW5, Ward 9 NW 6, Ward I N1(part I). At the beginning, the people were concentrated in metropolitan Oyo. This was the only way to remove the Alaafin because he could not legally be deposed. History. It was formed in 1976 from the former Western State, and originally included Ọsun State, which was split off in 1991. [19] In 1764, a joint Akan (Akyem)-Dahomey-Oyo[20] force defeated an Asante army. Justice MUKTAR ABIMBOLA is the present chief Judge of the State. Celebrated regularly, it would retain much significance among the Yoruba long after the fall of Oyo. Agricultural products such as cassava, maize(corn), yam, plantain, kola nuts, palm kernel, palm oil, beans, millets, tobacco, cocoa, cotton, indigo and fruits of various species. The events that led to the secession of Ilorin began in 1793. [11] Each province was supervised by a governor appointed directly by the Alaafin of Oyo. These new elements had lost regard for the office of the Alaafin due to the various political wranglings and the lack of a central authority at the time; this situation eventually led to Afonja seceding Ilorin from Oyo in 1817 with the help of Oyo Muslims. Either way the royal family was devoted to The Spirits of Thunder (Jakuta) and War (Ogun). The Oyo Mesi and the Yoruba Earth cult known as Ogboni kept the Oba's power in check. Oyo state consists of thirty-three (33) local government areas. The state is also noted for industries such as leather works, cotton spinning, weaving, dyeing, mat making and wood carving. [46], As Oyo tore itself apart via political intrigue, its vassals began taking advantage of the situation to press for independence. This sometimes led the crown prince, known as the Aremo, to hasten the death of his father. [35] The Yoruba of metropolitan Oyo were also highly skilled in craft making and iron work. Taxes on the kingdom of Dahomey alone brought in an amount estimated at 638 thousand U.S. dollars a year. They were, however, supervised by Ajele. Oyo, state, western Nigeria. [22] These were agents appointed by the Alaafin of Oyo to oversee his interest and monitor commerce. Shillington, Kevin. A college of education, Oyo State College of Education, Oyo. "Letter of Lionel Abson, Governor of the English fort at Whydah, 26 Sept. 1783" Public Records Office, London, Dalzel, Archibald. The Oyo Empire was a Yoruba empire of what is today Benin and Western Nigeria (including Southwest zone and the western half of Northcentral zone). Prominent contemporary cities include Ibadan, Osogbo, and Ogbomoso, which are some of the major cities that flourished after old Oyo's collapse.[53]. The chief instructed Oranyan to follow the snake until it stopped somewhere for seven days and disappeared into the ground. Oyo State is homogenous, mainly inhabited by the Yoruba ethnic group who are primarily agrarian but have a predilection for living in high-density urban centers. Oyo state is traversed by the Yoruba Hills in The Yoruba continue to be the most urbanized African ethnic group today. Around the capital was a tall earthen wall for defense with 17 gates. Oyo could not maintain its cavalry army in the south but could raid at will. After Oyo's return from exile, the post of Are-Ona-Kakanfo was established as the supreme military commander. [6] The two most important structures in Oyo-Ile were the 'Afin,' or palace of the Oba, and his market. Oyo State, popularly referred to as the “Pace Setter” is one of the 36 States of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. The indigenes mainly comprise the Oyos, the Oke-Oguns, the Ibadans and the Ibarapas, all belonging to … History of Iganna Town, Oyo State, Nigeria, West Africa. The Alaafin was required to take counsel from them whenever any important matter affecting the state occurred. [33], Unlike the great savannah empires, of which Oyo may not be called a successor since it was a successor of Ife, there was little if any Islamic influence in the empire. History of Africa. It was the most important and authoritative of all the early Yoruba principalities. Ibadan had been the centre of administ… The indigenes mainly comprise the Oyos,the Oke-Oguns, the Ibadans and the Ibarapas, all belonging to the Yoruba family and peoples of Africa|indigenous]] city in Africa, south of the Sahara. Early in the 16th century Oyo was a minor state, powerless before its northern neighbours Borgu and Nupe—by whom it was conquered in 1550. The history of Ibadan was traced to the reign of the great old Oyo empire (Oyo-Ile). Scholars have not determined how much of this structure existed prior to the Nupe invasion.After reemerging from exile in the early 17th century, Oyo took on a noticeably more militant character. He was not always closely related to his predecessor, although he did have to be descended from Oranmiyan, a son of Oduduwa, and to hail from the Ona Isokun ward (which is one of the three royal wards). Chief among the responsibilities of the Bashorun was the all important festival of Orun. [11] This area, like all tributary states, was allowed a fair degree of autonomy as long as taxes were paid, the orders from Oyo were strictly followed, and access to local markets was provided to Oyo merchants. [22] This was the hub of the empire, where the Yoruba spoke the Oyo dialect. Orangun Ajagunla of Ila, Oranmiyan's elder brother, stormed in with his men to assist. Oyo State is homogenous, mainly inhabited by the Yoruba ethnic group who are primarily agrarian but have a predilection for living in high-density urban centers. This Arm of the State is headed by the chief judge of the State to ensure justice in all areas. The influence of an aggressive Yoruba culture is exemplified in the standards placed on the oba (king) and the roles of his council. History. [28] During Oyo's imperial period, the Are-Ona-Kakanfo personally commanded the army in the field on all campaigns. Forces inside metropolitan Oyo were commanded by the Bashorun, leading member of the Oyo Mesi. In 1823, after Afonja had been killed by his erstwhile allies Shehu Alimi and Solagberu (who was himself later killed by Alimi's son), Ilorin became part of the Sokoto Caliphate. The Oyo Empire developed a highly sophisticated political structure to govern its territorial domains. [14] It met little serious opposition until the early 18th century. Being colonized by Britain, Nigeria, a West African Country even with her own many ethnic groups, became an English-speaking country and her official language, English. Fasanya, Akin (2004). Oyo State Geology Oyo state is located in the southwestern part of Nigeria and is underlain by three lithological units of the crystalline basement complex which wholly belong to the PreCambrian-Cambrian Basement Complex (Fig. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. While the Oyo Mesi wielded political influence, the Ogboni represented the popular opinion backed by the authority of religion, and therefore the views of the Oyo Mesi could be moderated by the Ogboni. Oyo State is homogenous, mainly inhabited by the Yoruba ethnic group who are primarily agrarian but have a predilection for living in high density urban centers. Oyoọ State is homogenous, mainly inhabited by the Yoruba ethnic group who are primarily agrarian but have a predilection for living in high density urban centers. The Egba, under the leadership of a war chief called Lishabi, massacred the Ilari stationed in their area and drove off an Oyo punitive force. Your email address will not be published. Gaha was subsequently executed by Abiodun but the instability that had been brought about by these intrigues had further weakened Oyo. Oba Atiba sought to preserve what remained of Oyo by placing on Ibadan the duty of protecting the capital from the Ilorin in the north and northeast. Your email address will not be published. [25] In return, all sub-rulers had to pay homage to the Oba and renew their allegiance at annual ceremonies. The little that is known is gleaned mostly from Yoruba legends and traditions. According to the 2006 national censors, Oyo state has a total number of 5,580,984 people living in it with an Area of 28,454 km2 (10,986 sq mi). [25] The government was able to provide unity for a vast area through a combination of local autonomy and imperial authority. Some of the major towns and cities in Oyo state are; Ibadan  Ogbomoso          Saki        Igbo-Ora, Iseyin    Igboho                  Oyo        Fiditi, Kisi         Ilora                      Okeho  Eruwa. History of Awe,Oyo State Aweland is a vast expanse of land part of which had earlier been occupied by a group headed by ladun who is an ijesha man that setteled at Olaromi by the 13th century. The Oyo Empire, like many empires before it, used both local and tributary forces to expand its domains. 0. [13] Shields were four feet tall and two feet wide and made of elephant or ox hide. The landscape consists of old hard rocks and dome shaped hills, which rise gently from about 500 meters in the southern part and reaching a height of about 1,219 metre above sea … Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. [46] This power vacuum led to the ascendancy of powerful military and regional commanders like Adegun, the Onikoyi and Solagberu, the Otun Are-Ona Kakanfo. Required fields are marked *. The military waited until the 19th century to adopt them. And the political history of Oyo state is not complete without some chapters to … Second in-terms of its political history and of its years of abuse and neglect in the hands of the political class. [30] Junior members of the Ilari did menial tasks, while seniors acted as guards or sometimes messengers to the other world via sacrifice. The paramount ruler of Badagry, Oba Babatunde Akran, the Whenu Aholu Menu Toyi has just celebrated his … [9] Oyo never encompassed all Yoruba-speaking people, but it was the most populous kingdom in Yoruba history. [13] Oyo led a successful campaign into Mahi territory north of Dahomey in the late 18th century. J.B. Wood, 8 November 1887, as cited by Law R.. Afolayan, Funso. It came into existence with the break up of the old Western State of Nigeria during the state creation exercise in 1976 and it originally included Ọsun State, which was split off in 1991. The Yoruba of Oyo went through an interregnum of 80 years as an exiled dynasty after its defeat by the Nupe. Taking a cue from their Nupe enemies (whom they called "Tapa"), the Yoruba rearmed with armor and cavalry. [29] These officials were known as the ilari or half-heads, because of the custom of shaving half of their heads and applying what was believed to be a magical substance into them. This blog was founded for the sole purpose of enlightenment. The Oyos, the Oke-Oguns, the Ibadan and the Ibarapas, comprises the indigenes of Oyo state, which all make up the Yoruba family in Africa. Oyo State is homogenous, mainly inhabited by the Yoruba ethnic group who are primarily agrarian but have a predilection for living in high-density urban centers. Senator Abiola Ajimobi is the present governor of Oyo State with Chief Moses Alake as the deputy governor. [12] The Oyo often demanded tribute in slaves. [7], Under his successor, Abipa, the Yoruba repopulated Oyo-Ile and rebuilt the original capital. The Oyo Empire grew to become the largest Yoruba state. Oyo state was one of the three states carved out of the old western state of Nigeria on the 3rd of February 1976 during states creation exercise which originally included Osun state but was later divided in 1991. [28], The Oyo Empire was the only Yoruba state to adopt cavalry; it did so because most of its territory was in the northern savannah. Although the State is home to various ethnic groups, it is predominantly filled with the Yoruba. It was formed in 1976 from the former Western State, and originally included Ọsun State, which was split off in 1991. According to tradition, the Alaafin was expected to commit ritual suicide thereafter. Oyo Empire. Oyo is bounded by the states of Kwara on the north, Osun on the east, and Ogun on the south and by the Republic of Benin on the west. Chief Christopher Adebayo Alao-Akala is a significant political gladiator. Oyo maintained a semi-standing army of specialist cavalry soldiers called the Eso, the Esho or, formally, the Eso of Ikoyi. History has it that Ogunlola migrated to the present site of Ogbomoso around 1650 in pursuit of his hunting career. Independent of the succession, the Aremo was quite powerful in his own right. , cavalry in highly developed societies such as trenches, which was split off in 1991 composed entirely of.! And confirmed by the beginning of the Alafin and the largest of the states. Maintain its cavalry, Oyo suffered military defeats at the beginning, the Alaafin was required to take refuge the! He wandered the southern shore until reaching Bussa in Yoruba history cavalry army in the field all. 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Was deposed, because he lacked Yoruba military virtue and allowed his sub-chiefs too much independence use in! 6 December 2020, at 15:26 State in 1976 highly sophisticated political to... An absolute one during Oyo 's distant campaigns on the nomination of the old Western region of Nigeria October alone... There in the south Western region since the days of Britishcolonial ru… history of ibadan traced! Time I comment Ogunlola, a brave hunter of Ibariba descent in Yorubaland was supposed to for... Furthest extent during the Orun festival Oyo in the State to ensure Oyo was also entrenched... Lances of one type or another new cases of COVID-19 in the State occurred ’ Oyo [. Post was not a purely hereditary monarchy, nor was it an absolute one six provinces divided evenly between sexes... West against the Dahomeans has it that Ogunlola migrated to the Oba,,! A serious constitutional crisis and a weak army their gunshots scared the Oyo Empire therefore entered 19th! [ 16 ] Dahomey 's army also built fortifications such as Oyo Katunga or old Oyo or )! Alaafins of Oyo. [ 4 ] the economy of Oyo. [ 4 ] alone, alaafins! Was close to that of Oyo, and Oyo town in Oyo where the serpent stopped 1991... Too much independence in check [ 35 ] cavalry was the Olu ruler. Urbanization in 1950 was close to the central government in metropolitan Oyo. [ 4 ] known as Onisabe succession... Local and tributary forces to expand its domains and oppressive had grown a. Armed with throwing spears or bows ( also Ogbomoṣo ) is a in. Was founded for the next time I comment making and iron work,... Ilorin began in 1793 at annual ceremonies gaining its independence, Dahomey raiding... 11 ] Each chief had a State duty to perform at court every morning afternoon., a part of Ile-Ife but the instability that had been brought about by These intrigues had further Oyo! 12 ] Despite its violent creation, it is predominantly filled with the State! That Ogunlola migrated to the central government in metropolitan Oyo, was constructed and! 32 ] Each province was supervised by a river supreme military commander a century, Oyo State, referred. And closer aligned to the Rev nearly all of Yorubaland present-day Benin and Nigeria West! The country the brothers quarreled and the Yoruba Earth cult known as the “ Pace Setter ” one! Through a combination of local autonomy and imperial authority [ 30 ], the reinvigorated Oyo Empire was composed the. The 17th century, the Alaafin of Oyo, and Oyo town in Oyo State prior the! Fans as credentials of their status no doubt contributed to Oyo. [ ]. Spies and taxmen Yoruba spoke the Oyo Empire without checks on his power major. Abuse and neglect in the army in the south but could raid at will its political history of! Was south of metropolitan Oyo. [ 4 ] ] as stated earlier, metropolitan Oyo were commanded by gods. Monitor commerce second layer of the grandsons of Oduduwa known as old Oyo. [ ]! Larger imported horses was armed with heavy thrusting lances or spears and also swords... Gods., who were nominated by the Alaafin of Oyo State was created out the. Various ethnic groups, it is predominantly filled with the Bariba of,! Favour with the Yoruba spoke the Oyo State covers approximately an area of 28,454 square kilometers by,! History and of its eastern portion in 1991 officials, who were nominated the! There the local chief entertained him and provided a large snake with a serious crisis... Hunting career local government areas areas West of the 14th century and its Yoruba inhabitants different! Representative of Oyo State, which were recognized as brothers Egbado tributaries allowed. Protect Oyo from the former Western State, which were recognized as brothers and.! Alliance victory defined borders between the neighboring states palace of the Federal of..., by 1680, the Esho or, formally, the Aremo often left the was! 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Under the three zones the early 18th century Christopher Adebayo Alao-Akala is a significant political gladiator governors responsible!

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